Reveal Risk Calculator
The REVEAL Registry Risk Score Calculator developed by Dr. Raymond L. Benza helps predict survival in patients with PAH. Based on the patient’s predicted one-year survival, a risk group is assigned.1
Patients with PAH may perpetually be at risk for disease progression.2 As PAH is a progressive disease, assess risk status every 3-6 months.3
REVEAL is a multicenter, prospective registry of patients with incident or prevalent PAH (N=2525; enrolled March 2006-September 2007). The REVEAL risk score calculator was developed by assigning weighted values to assessment criteria that were independent predictors of survival in a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model. Based on 1-year survival, a patient’s risk was categorized as low (1-7), average (8), moderately high (9), high (10-11), or very high (≥12).
This calculator was validated in a cohort of 504 newly diagnosed patients. The REVEAL calculator demonstrated the average predicted survival rate for patients with risk. Note, there are many determinates of risk.
Tyvaso (treprostinil) is a prostacyclin vasodilator indicated for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) (WHO Group 1) to improve exercise ability. Studies establishing effectiveness included predominately patients with NYHA Functional Class III symptoms and etiologies of idiopathic or heritable PAH (56%) or PAH associated with connective tissue diseases (33%).
The effects diminish over the minimum recommended dosing interval of 4 hours; treatment timing can be adjusted for planned activities.
While there are long-term data on use of treprostinil by other routes of administration, nearly all controlled clinical experience with inhaled treprostinil has been on a background of bosentan (an endothelin receptor antagonist) or sildenafil (a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor). The controlled clinical experience was limited to 12 weeks in duration.
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
- The efficacy of Tyvaso has not been established in patients with significant underlying lung disease (such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Patients with acute pulmonary infections should be carefully monitored to detect any worsening of lung disease and loss of drug effect
- Tyvaso is a pulmonary and systemic vasodilator. In patients with low systemic arterial pressure, Tyvaso may cause symptomatic hypotension
- Titrate slowly in patients with hepatic or renal insufficiency, as exposure to treprostinil may be increased in these patients
- Tyvaso inhibits platelet aggregation and increases the risk of bleeding
- Co-administration of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 enzyme inhibitor gemfibrozil may increase exposure to treprostinil. Co-administration of the CYP2C8 enzyme inducer rifampin may decrease exposure to treprostinil. Increased exposure is likely to increase adverse events, whereas decreased exposure is likely to reduce clinical effectiveness
- The concomitant use of Tyvaso with diuretics, antihypertensives, or other vasodilators may increase the risk of symptomatic hypotension
- Co-administration of the CYP2C8 enzyme inhibitor gemfibrozil increases exposure to oral treprostinil. Co-administration of the CYP2C8 enzyme inducer rifampin decreases exposure to oral treprostinil. It is unclear if the safety and efficacy of treprostinil by the inhalation route are altered by inhibitors or inducers of CYP2C8
- Limited case reports of treprostinil use in pregnant women are insufficient to inform a drug-associated risk of adverse developmental outcomes. However, pulmonary arterial hypertension is associated with an increased risk of maternal and fetal mortality. There are no data on the presence of treprostinil in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production
- Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established
- The most common adverse reactions seen with Tyvaso in ≥4% of PAH patients and more than 3% greater than placebo in the placebo-controlled clinical study were cough (54% vs 29%), headache (41% vs 23%), throat irritation/ pharyngolaryngeal pain (25% vs 14%), nausea (19% vs 11%), flushing (15% vs <1%), and syncope (6% vs <1%). In addition, adverse reactions occurring in ≥10% of patients were dizziness and diarrhea
For additional information please see Full Prescribing Information or call Customer Service at 1-877-UNITHER (1-877-864-8437)
- Benza RL, Gomberg-Maitland M, Miller DP, et al. The REVEAL registry risk score calculator in patients newly diagnosed with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Chest. 2012;141(2):354-362.
- Klinger JR. Pulmonary arterial hypertension: monitoring the patient’s response to therapy, part 1. J Respir Dis. 2009;30:1-11.
- Galiè N, Humbert M, Vachiery JL, et al; for ESC Scientific Document Group. 2015 ESC/ERS Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension: The Joint Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS): Endorsed by: Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC), International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT). Eur Respir J. 2016;37(1):67-119.